Author Archives: hartoyo

Final Test_ICT in Language Learning

PRODI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA UHAMKA

ICT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
FINAL ASSIGNMENT

1. Assignment
a. Write an academic essay about ICT in language teaching and learning
b. You may choose any topic related to ICT in language teaching and learning e.g. Computer in Language Learning; Strategy in developing Self – Access Computer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL); The use of computer to enhance the learning of grammar, etc.;
c. The essay should be written in the following format (modify the format if necessary).
(1) Introduction
This section presents a background, an argument(s) and reasons why you select the topic for your essay.
(2) Objectives
In this section, you are required to state clearly the objective (s) that is highlighted and proposed in your essay.
(3) Review of Related Literature
This section contains a review of literature related to the topic of your essay. In this section, you are required to discuss the topic supported by related literature, and provide an explanation and further elaboration of the topic.
(4) Analysis
This part presents an analysis of the selected topic merged with the related literature reviewed in section (3), which may encompass positive and negative analysis, strengths and weaknesses, and advantages of learning and highlighting the topic.
(5) Summary and recommendation
This part constitutes a summary of your essay. You are also required to propose some recommendations that may be useful for the readers, teacher of ICT in language learning, researchers, and whoever intends to learn and carry out further similar studies.
d. Support your essay with sufficient references taken from both your course materials and other source of information (e.g. internet – website, journals, and books related to the topic). Don’t forget to include references on the bibliography!

2. Date of Submission
The essay should be submitted via your own website under the category “Final Assignment”. Don’t forget to send me via email the address of your website. You are also recommended to submit the hard copy of your essay in case of the problems of website delivery system.

MId Test ICT

PRODI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA UHAMKA

ICT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
MID – SEMESTER TEST

1. Assignment
a. Choose one of the topics being discussed in your ICT and Language Learning course;
b. Discuss and analyse the topic from two pints of view: (1) strengths and weaknesses, and (2) advantages and disadvantages;
c. The essay should be approximately 3,000 words;
d. Support your essay with sufficient references taken from both your course materials and other source of information (e.g. internet – website, journals, and books related to the topic).

2. Date of Submission
The essay should be submitted via your own website.. Don’t forget to send me via email the address of your website.

RSBI

MENGGAGAS MADRASAH ALIYAH BERTARAF INTERNASIONAL*)

Oleh
Hartoyo, M.A., Ph.D.**)

A. Latar Belakang
Penyelenggaraan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (SBI) dilatarbelakangi oleh alasan-alasan berikut. Pertama, era globalisasi menuntut kemampuan daya saing yang kuat dalam teknologi manajemen dan sumber daya manusia. Keunggulan teknologi akan menurunkan biaya produksi, meningkatkan kandungan nilai tambah, memperluas keragaman produk, dan meningkatkan mutu produk. Kedua, rintisan penyelenggaraan SBI memiliki dasar hukum yang kuat yaitu Pasal 50 ayat 3 Undang-Undang nomor 20 tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UUSPN 20/2003) yang menyebutkan bahwa “pemerintah dan/atau pemerintah daerah menyelenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu satuan pendidikan pada semua jenjang pendidikan untuk dikembangkan menjadi satuan pendidikan bertaraf internasional”. Ketiga, penyelenggaraan SBI didasari oleh filosofi eksistensialisme dan esensialisme (fungsionalisme). Filosofi eksistensialisme berkeyakinan bahwa pendidikan harus menyuburkan dan mengembangkan eksistensi peserta didik seoptimal mungkin melalui fasilitasi yang dilaksanakan melalui proses pendidikan yang bermartabat, pro-perubahan (kreatif, inovatif, dan eksperimentatif), menumbuhkan dan mengembangkan bakat, minat, dan kemampuan peserta didik.
Dalam mengaktualisasikan kedua filosofi tersebut, empat pilar pendidikan yaitu learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be merupakan patokan berharga bagi penyelarasan praktik-praktik penyelenggaraan pendidikan di Indonesia, mulai dari kurikulum, guru, proses belajar mengajar, sarana dan prasarana, hingga sampai penilaiannya. Misalnya, pembelajaran tidaklah sekedar memperkenalkan nilai-nilai (learning to know), tetapi juga harus bisa membangkitkan penghayatan dan mendorong menerapkan nilai-nilai tersebut (learning to do) yang dilakukan secara kolaboratif (learning to live together) dan menjadikan peserta didik percaya diri dan menghargai dirinya (learning to be).
Penyusunan dan pengembangan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan dan Standar Isi bagi SBI ini berlandaskan pada:
1. Undang-Undang nomor 20 tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional dalam pasal 50 menyatakan bahwa:
a. Ayat (2): Pemerintah menentukan kebijakan nasional dan standar nasional pendidikan untuk menjamin mutu pendidikan nasional.
b. Ayat (3): Pemerintah dan/atau Pemerintah Daerah menyelenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu sekolah pada semua jenjang pendidikan untuk dikembangkan menjadi sekolah yang bertaraf internasional.
2. Peraturan Pemerintah nomor 19 tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan dalam pasal 61 ayat (1) menyatakan bahwa: Pemerintah bersama-sama pemerintah daerah menyelenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu sekolah pada jenjang pendidikan dasar dan sekurang-kuranganya satu sekolah pada jenjang pendidikan menengah untuk dikembangkan menjadi sekolah bertaraf nasional.
3. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Tahun 2007 tentang Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu Sekolah/ Madrasah Bertaraf Internasional pada jenjang pendidikan dasar dan menengah,, antara lain pada halaman 10 disebutkan” …… diharapkan seluruh pemangku kepentingan untuk menjabarkan secara operasional sesuai dengan karakteristik dan kebutuhan Sekolah/Madrasah bertarap internasional….”
4. Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 22 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Isi
5. Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 23 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan
6. Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 24 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Implementasi Permendiknas nomor 22 dam 23 tahun 2006
7. Rencana Strategis (Renstra) Departemen Pendidikan Nasional tahun 2005-2009.

B. SBI, Mengapa Perlu?
Berdasarkan alasan-alasan tersebut, penting kiranya pemerintah, dalam hal ini Depdiknas, memberikan arahan, bimbingan dan pengaturan terhadap sekolah-sekolah yang telah dan akan merintis SBI agar kedepan pengembangannya lebih terarah, terencana, dan sistematis.
Standar Kompetensi Lulusan dan Standar Isi ini disusun untuk memberikan penjelasan dan panduan bagi pemangku kepentingan, terutama sekolah dan komite sekolah dalam mengembangkan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan yang bertaraf internasional dengan tetap berdasarkan pada peraturan perundangan yang berlaku. Secara lebih khusus diharapkan sekolah bersama komite sekolah serta pemangku kepentingan lainnya dapat:
1. memiliki pemahaman, pengertian, dan wawasan yang sama tentang konsep sekolah bertaraf internasional;
2. memiliki pemahaman, pengertian, dan wawasan yang sama tentang pengembangan kurikulum sekolah bertaraf internasional berdasarkan SKL dan SI;
3. menjabarkan yang lebih operasional sesuai dengan karakteristik dan kebutuhan sekolah bertaraf internasional dalam bentuk KTSP Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional;
4. menjabarkan secara operasional sistem atau model-model pembelajaran yang bertaraf internasional sesuai dengan tuntutan kompetensi yang ada;
5. menjabarkan secara operasional sistem atau model-model penilaian yang bertaraf internasional;
6. mengembangkan bahan ajar sesuai dengan kebutuhan atau tuntutan kompetensi bagi sekolah bertaraf internasional;
7. menjabarkan secara operasional panduan penyelenggaraan sekolah bertaraf internasional, baik dalam hal regulasi sekolah, perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan, pengkoordinasian, pemantapan, pengawasan, pengevaluasian, dan pelaporannnya.

C. Konsep dan Karakteristik SBI
1. Konsep Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional
Seperti dijelaskan dalam Permendiknas tahun 2007 tentang “Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu Sekolah/ Madrasah Bertaraf Internasional pada Jenjang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah”, bahwa Sekolah/ Madrasah Bertaraf Internasional merupakan “Sekolah/Madrasah yang sudah memenuhi seluruh Standar Nasional Pendidikan dan diperkaya dengan mengacu pada standar pendidikan salah satu negara anggota Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development dan/atau negara maju lainnya yang mempunyai keunggulan tertentu dalam bidang pendidikan, sehingga memiliki daya saing di forum internasional”.
Dengan konsepsi ini, SBI adalah sekolah yang sudah memenuhi dan melaksanakan standar nasional pendidikan yang meliputi: standar isi, standar proses, standar kompetensi lulusan, standar pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan, dan standar penilaian. Selanjutnya, aspek-aspek SNP tersebut diperkaya, diperkuat, dikembangkan, diperdalam, diperluas melalui adaptasi atau adopsi standar pendidikan dari salah satu anggota OECD dan/atau negara maju lainnya yang mempunyai keunggulan tertentu dalam bidang pendidikan serta diyakini telah memiliki reputasi mutu yang diakui secara internasional, serta lulusannya memiliki kemampuan daya saing internasional.
Sesuai dengan konsepsi SBI di atas, maka dalam upaya mempermudah sekolah dalam memahami dan menjabarkan secara operasional dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan, khususnya dalam pengembangan kurikulum SBI, maka dapat dirumuskan bahwa SBI pada dasarnya merupakan pelaksanaan dan pemenuhan SNP (8 aspek SNP) ditambah (dalam pengertian diperdalam, diperluas, diperkaya) dengan x (yang isinya merupakan pengayaan, perluasan, pendalaman dan sebagainya tentang delapan aspek pendidikan, model pembelajaran, model penilaian, dan sistem lain yang berstandar internasional dari salah satu anggota OECD dan/atau Negara maju lainnya).
Untuk dapat memenuhi karakteristik dan konsepsi SBI tersebut, maka sekolah dapat melakukan minimal dengan dua cara, yaitu: (1) adaptasi, yaitu penyesuaian unsur-unsur tertentu yang sudah ada dalam SNP dengan mengacu pada standar pendidikan salah satu anggota OECD dan/atau negara maju lainnya yang mempunyai keunggulan tertentu dalam bidang pendidikan, diyakini telah memiliki reputasi mutu yang diakui secara internasional, serta lulusannya memiliki kemampuan daya saing internasional; dan (2) adopsi, yaitu penambahan unsur-unsur tertentu yang belum ada dalam SNP dengan mengacu pada standar pendidikan salah satu anggota OECD dan/atau negara maju lainnya yang mempunyai keunggulan tertentu dalam bidang pendidikan, diyakini telah memiliki reputasi mutu yang diakui secara internasional, serta lulusannya memiliki kemampuan daya saing internasional.
Oleh karena itu, bagi sekolah yang akan melakukan adaptasi ataupun adopsi, perlu mencari mitra internasional, misalnya sekolah-sekolah dari USA, UK, Australia, Perancis, Jepang, Korea Selatan, Hongkong, dan Singapura yang mutunya telah diakui secara internasional, atau pusat-pusat pelatihan, industri, lembaga-lembaga tes/sertifikasi internasional seperti misalnya Cambridge, IB, TOEFL/TOEIC, ISO, pusat-pusat studi dan organisasi-organisasi multilateral seperti UNESCO.

2. Karakteristik SBI
Pada dasarnya sekolah yang telah bertaraf internasional harus memiliki keunggulan yang ditunjukkan oleh pengakuan internasional terhadap proses dan hasil pendidikan dalam berbagai aspek. Pengakuan tersebut dibuktikan dengan sertifikasi berpredikat baik dari salah satu anggota OECD dan/atau negara maju lainnya yang mempunyai keunggulan tertentu dalam bidang pendidikan, diyakini telah memiliki reputasi mutu yang diakui secara internasional, serta lulusannya memiliki kemampuan daya saing internasional. Dalam konteks di Indonesia, lulusan SBI diharapkan, selain menguasai SNP Indonesia, juga menguasai kemampuan-kemampuan kunci global agar setara dengan rekannya dari negara-negara maju tersebut.
Untuk itu pengakraban peserta didik terhadap nilai-nilai progresif yang diunggulkan dalam era global perlu digunakan sebagai acuan dalam penyelenggaraan SBI. Nilai-nilai progresif tersebut akan dapat mempersempit kesenjangan antara Indonesia dengan negara-negara maju, khususnya dalam bidang ekonomi dan teknologi. Perkembangan ekonomi dan teknologi sangat tergantung pada penguasaan disiplin ilmu keras (hard science) dan disiplin ilmu lunak (soft science). Disiplin ilmu keras meliputi matematika, fisika, kimia, biologi, astronomi, dan terapannya yaitu teknologi yang meliputi teknologi komunikasi, transportasi, manufaktur, konstruksi, bio energi, dan bahan. Disiplin ilmu lunak misalnya sosiologi, ekonomi, bahasa asing (Inggris, utamanya), dan etika global.
Apabila mengacu pada visi pendidikan nasional, maka karakteristik visi SBI adalah “terwujudnya insan Indonesia yang cerdas dan kompetitif secara internasional”. Visi tersebut memiliki implikasi bahwa penyiapan manusia bertaraf internasional memerlukan upaya-upaya yang dilakukan secara intensif, terarah, terencana, dan sistematik agar dapat mewujudkan bangsa yang maju, sejahtera, damai, dihormati, dan diperhitungkan oleh bangsa-bangsa lain. Maka dari itu misi SBI adalah mewujudkan manusia Indonesia cerdas dan kompetitif secara internasional, yang mampu bersaing dan berkolaborasi secara global. Misi ini direalisasikan melalui kebijakan, rencana, program, dan kegiatan SBI yang disusun secara cermat, tepat, futuristik, dan berbasis demand-driven. Penyelenggaraan SBI bertujuan untuk menghasilkan lulusan yang berkelas nasional dan internasional sekaligus. Lulusan yang berkelas nasional secara jelas telah dirumuskan dalam UU No. 20/2003 dan dijabarkan dalam PP 19/2005, dan lebih dirincikan lagi dalam Permendiknas nomor 23/2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan (SKL) yang bunyinya sebagai berikut.

Pertama, pendidikan dasar bertujuan untuk meletakkan dasar kecerdasan, pengetahuan, kepribadian, akhlak mulia, dan keterampilan untuk hidup mandiri dan mengikuti pendidikan lebih lanjut.

Kedua, pendidikan menengah (umum dan kejuruan) memiliki tujuan sebagai berikut. Pendidikan menengah umum bertujuan untuk “meningkatkan kecerdasan, pengetahuan, kepribadian, akhlak mulia, serta keterampilan untuk hidup mandiri dan mengikuti pendidikan lebih lanjut”. Pendidikan menengah kejuruan bertujuan untuk “meningkatkan kecerdasan, pengetahuan, kepribadian, akhlak mulia, serta keterampilan untuk hidup mandiri dan mengikuti pendidikan lebih lanjut sesuai dengan kejuruannya”. Tujuan-tujuan pendidikan dasar dan menengah tersebut kemudian dirinci dalam bentuk standar kompetensi lulusan SD/MI, SMP/MTs, SMA/MA, dan SMK/MAK.
Mengingat yang akan dirintis adalah Madrasah Aliyah Bertaraf Internasional (MBI), maka beberapa karakteristik lain yang perlu dipertimbangkan, antara lain:
1) Keunggulan bidang agama tertentu, misalnya keterampilan baca Al-Qur’an, dakwah, dan sebagainya, yang merupakan ciri khas keunggulan sesuai dengan karakteristik madrasah.
2) Keunggulan potensi lokal yang bisa diangkat ke dalam kancah internasional. Misalnya keterampilan dan produksi batik yang diajarkan kepada siswa sebagai bagian dari keterampilan siswa. Di samping itu, keunggulan potensi lokal dapat mengangkat reputasi dan sekaligus promosi potensi daerah.
3) Keunggulan pengetahuan tertentu, misalnya pemanfaatan/penggunaan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK), yang diterapkan sebagai bagian bidang akademik yang digunakan dalam membekali siswa, maupun dalam menunjang proses pembelajaran dan administrasi dengan mengacu standar internasional yang digunakan di salah satu sekolah internasional di luar negeri.
Pada tahap awal, kita bisa mengadopsi dan mengadaptasi kurikulum dan prinsip-prinsip standar prosedur operasional sekolah internasional tersebut.
4) Networking dengan perguruan tinggi terkemuka di luar negeri, sebagai mitra yang diharapkan dapat menerima lulusan Madrasah Bertaraf Internasional yang akan melanjutkan kuliah di luar negeri.

D. SBI/MBI, Apa yang harus dilakukan?
Sebagaimana disebutkan di atas bahwa SBI/MBI merupakan sekolah/madrasah nasional yang sudah memenuhi SNP yang terdiri dari 8 aspek dan diperkaya, diperkuat, dikembangkan, diperdalam, diperluas melalui adaptasi atau adopsi terhadap standar pendidikan, baik dari dalam maupun luar negeri, yang telah diyakini telah memiliki reputasi mutu yang diakui secara internasional. Reputasi tersebut menyangkut semua aspek dalam SNP, termasuk aspek kurikulum (Standar Isi) yang harus mencerminkan ciri-ciri ke-internasional-an sehingga menghasilkan lulusan yang berkualitas dan diakui secara internasional.
Berkaitan dengan pengembangan kurikulum (KTSP), SBI/MBI juga harus dikembangkan berdasarkan standar nasional, tetapi tidak mengurangi porsi kurikulum nasional yang telah ditetapkan dalam Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Isi (SI) dan Permendiknas nomor 23 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan, serta Permendiknas No. 41 tahun 2007 tentang Standar Proses, dan Permendiknas No. 20 tahun 2007 tentang Standar Penilaian. Oleh karena itu kurikulum sekolah/madrasah bertaraf internasional adalah kurikulum nasional yang diperkaya, diperdalam, diperluas, diperkuat melalui adopsi dan adaptasi agar lulusannya setara dengan sekolah-sekolah dari negara anggota OECD dan/atau negara maju lainnya.
Sebagaimana disebutkan dalam Permendiknas No. 23 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan (SKL) tercermin bahwa SKL menggambarkan kompetensi yang harus dikuasai seorang siswa setelah menyelesaikan studinya pada sekolah berstandar nasional. Oleh karena itu Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (SBI), harus mengembangkan SKL dalam bentuk pengayaan, pendalaman, dan perluasan cakupan melalui adopsi dan adaptasi dari SKL atau standar pendidikan dari salah satu negara anggota OECD dan/atau negara maju lainnya.

E. Pengembangan RSBI/RMBI
Ada beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan dalam rangka pengembangan RSBI/RMBI, di antaranya adalah sebagai berikut.
1) Workshop, misalnya: pengembangan kurikulum, pengembangan materi, peningkatan kemampuan bahasa Inggris guru dan siswa;
2) Rekrutmen guru-guru dan tenaga kependidikan;
3) Pengiriman guru studi banding atau magang ke sekolah bertaraf internasional luar negeri;
4) Peningkatan tatakelola melalui benchmarking, dan membangun network dengan salah satu sekolah di luar negeri (sister school);
5) Menjalin MoU dengan sekolah yang sudah mulai mapan dalam penyelenggaraannya. Upaya ini paling tidak sebagai bentuk lesson study yang secara empirik memiliki berbagai keunggulan.

F. Apa yang harus dilakukan oleh guru dan kepala sekolah RSBI/RMBI

1. Kepala Sekolah dan guru harus:
 Mempunyai kemampuan bahasa Inggris yang memadai (standarisasi melalui tes TOEIC)
 Mempunyai kemampuan mengenai teknologi informasi (IT) yang memadai
2. Guru harus menunjukkan:
 Penerapan pengajaran yang berkualitas:
• Menunjukkan kecakapan mengajar yang berkualitas (High Quality Teaching Practice) yang mendukung peningkatan pembelajaran siswa dalam area pembelajaran yang terkait
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menggunakan teknologi pembelajaran dalam program pengajaran dan pembelajaran
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk merencanakan program pembelajaran yang mencakup semua siswa dengan berbagai macam tingkat kemampuannya.
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pembelajaran siswa yang berbahasa Inggris di setiap kelas
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menilai dan memonitor pencapaian siswa dan memberikan laporan kepada orang tua sehingga mereka secara rutin benar-benar mengetahui kemajuan anak-anaknya.
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menjaga standar tinggi sikap dan kedisiplinan yang membentuk lingkungan kelas yang positif
 Kontribusi pada area pembelajaran dan pengembangan kurikulum
• Menunjukkan level pengetahuan dan pengertian yang komprehensif sesuai dengan area kurikulum yang relevan dan gaya pembelajaran siswa
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk secara sukses mengimplementasikan dan mengevaluasi inisiatif kurikulum sesuai dengan aturan sekolah dalam kerjasama tim.
• Menunjukkan kapasitas untuk menilai secara kritis penerapan professional dan kemampuan untuk membuat strategi untuk meningkatkan kualitas pengajaran dan pembelajaran siswa
 Hubungan (yang baik) dengan siswa, staf dan orang tua
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk membina hubungan konstruktif dengan siswa yang menimbulkan sikap positif untuk pembelajaran
• Menunjukkan kecakapan interpersonal dan komunikasi tingkat tinggi ketika berinteraksi dengan siswa, orang tua dan sesama guru.
• Menunjukkan nilai dan sikap yang patut di contoh sebagai penerapan tanggung jawab professional dan intelektual, pengembangan fisik dan sosial siswa.
 Kontribusi kepada sekolah
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk berkontribusi bagi pengembangan dan implementasi program, dalam aturan kebijakan sekolah, yang bisa menyempurnakan pemblajaran siswa di sebuah lingkungan internasional
• Menunjukkan kemampuan untuk merespon kebutuhan dan prioritas kependidikan yang muncul di lingkungan internasional
• Menunjukkan komitmen dan kontribusi aktif bagi banyak kegiatan sekolah

G. Penutup
Konsekuensi logis dari pengembangan kurikulum yang tetap berbasis Standar Isi (SI) maka perlu dikembangkan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan oleh sekolah bertaraf internasional dengan tetap berlandaskan peraturan perundangan dan standar pendidikan dari salah satu anggota OECD dan/atau negara maju lainnya. Mata pelajaran yang harus dikembangkan kurikulumnya oleh sekolah minimal pada mata pelajaran: a) Matematika, b) Fisika dan Biologi (IPA), c) Bahasa Inggris, dan d) Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK).
Pengembangan standar kompetensi lulusan dan standar isi untuk sekolah bertaraf internasional jenjang SMP telah dilaksanakan oleh Direktorat Pembinaan SMP. Proses pengembangan tersebut dengan melibatkan berbagai unsur pemangku kepentingan, diantaranya: Pusat Kurikulum Balitbang Depdiknas, Pusat Penilaian Pendidikan Balitbang Depdiknas, Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP), Direktorat Pembinaan SMA, Direktorat Pembinaan SMK, Direktorat Pembinaan SD/TK di lingkungan Ditjen Mandikdasmen, Sekolah Global Jaya, Sekolah Ciputra, Sekolah Pelita Harapan, dan pemangku kepentingan lainnya yang terkait.
Hasil pengembangan ini pada dasarnya adalah sebagai bahan masukan kepada berbagai pihak yang berkepentingan dan sekaligus sebagai bahan rujukan awal bagi sekolah jenjang SMP yang telah ditetapkan sebagai SBI. Sehingga sifatnya masih berupa rancangan yang dapat berubah serta menyesuaikan dengan perkembangan regulasi yang ada di tingkat pusat. Hal lain sebagai pertimbangan adalah karena kebutuhan yang mendesak dari sekolah (lapangan) untuk segera adanya panduan pengembangan kurikulum SBI (sebagaimana halnya diuraikan pada Permendiknas tahun 2007 tentang “Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu Sekolah/Madrasah Bertaraf Internasional pada Jenjang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.
Secara substansi, dalam proses pengembangan standar kompetensi lulusan dan standar isi ini telah membandingkan atau mengkaji dengan standar pendidikan (khsuusnya kurikulum) dari berbagai negara diantara negara-negara anggota OECD dan negara maju lainnya, yaitu kurikulum dari negara AS, Jerman, Malaysia, Singapura, Australia, dll. Di samping itu juga mengkaji kurikulumnya Sekolah Global Jaya, Pelita Harapan, dan Sekolah Ciputra. Berdasarkan hasil kajian tersebut (membandingkan antara kurikulum SNP dengan kurikulum dari negara-negara maju tersebut), selanjutnya dikembangkan/disusun standar kompetensi lulusan dan standar isi untuk sekolah bertaraf internasional jenjang SMP di Indonesia. Disamping itu, juga dikembangkan berbagai model pembelajaran dan penilaian bertaraf internasional, sebagai pengayaan pembelajaran oleh guru sebagaimana tuntutan kompetensi yang bertaraf internasional.
Sekolah diharapkan dapat menggunakan rancangan standar kompetensi lulusan dan standar isi ini untuk mengembangkan kurikulum SBI di sekolahnya, yang disesuaikan dengan kondisi sekolah, kebutuhan sekolah/peserta didik, dan kondisi lingkungan masyarakat masing-masing. Sekolah diberikan keleluasaan untuk mengembangkan lebih jauh dan lebih luas untuk menghasilkan kurikulum SBI yang benar-benar memenuhi karakteristik sekolah sebagai SBI. Misalnya melakukan kerjasama dengan sekolah/ lembaga/negara maju di luar negeri.

H. Daftar Pustaka
Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 22 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Isi
Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 23 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan
Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 24 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Implementasi Permendiknas nomor 22 dan 23 tahun 2006
Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Tahun 2007 tentang Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu Sekolah/ Madrasah Bertaraf Internasional
Peraturan Pemerintah nomor 19 tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan
Rencana Strategis (Renstra) Departemen Pendidikan Nasional tahun 2005-2009
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2007. SKL & SI SBI
Undang-Undang nomor 20 tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional
Hartoyo. 2005. Laporan Learning Round-table on Advanced Teacher Professionalism. Bangkok. Thailand
_____. 2007. Menggagas Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional. Makalah dalam Seminar di SMPN 2 Semarang
_____. 2008. Kepala Sekolah Efektif: Harapan dan Tantangan. Makalah dalam Rapat Koordinasi Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan Melalui Kepala Sekolah. Makalah dalam Workshop di LPMP Jawa Tengah
_____. 2008. Strategi Penerapan Sistem Pemantauan dan Evaluasi Pelaksanaan Kebijakan dan Program Pendidikan Nasional. Makalah dalam Workshop Peningkatan Kapasitas SDM Biro Perencanaan dan Kerjasama Luar Negeri, Depdiknas
_____. 2008. Pengembangan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional. Makalah dalam Seminar dan Workshop di LPMP Jawa Tengah

Blogger Uhamka 2008 Angkatan II

  1. Ahmad Amin Mustofa    http://roisadnan.wordpress.com
  2. Irwan Thahir M               http://irwanuhamka.wordpress.com
  3. Hendri                             http://edri0702.wordpress.com
  4. Mildan                             http://mildanfidinillah.wordpress.com 
  5. Tantri                              http://tantriuhamka.wordpress.com 
  6. Elis Nurhayati                                 http://elisuhamka.wordpress.com 
  7. Siti Laela                         http://laelauhamka.wordpress.com 
  8. Syaadiah Maula              http://maulaku0702.wordpress.com
  9. Hasanudin                       http://hasanuhamka.wordpress.com 
  10. Soleha                            http://solehaworld.wordpress.com 
  11. La Ode Hampu                                http://odeuhamka207.wordpress.com
  12. M. Alwi                           http://melanoalwi.wordpress.com 
  13. Ilham                               http://ilhamblog.wordpress.com 
  14. Happy Aprilia                  http://happyuhamka.wordpress.com 
  15. Aisyah Anwar                  http://aisyahuhamka.wordpress.com 
  16. Diesi Indah Yuliana         http://diesiesperanza.wordpress.com 
  17. Sellyana                          http://myzsuns.wordpress.com 
  18. Rofikoh Rokaaitun          http://rofikoh07.wordpress.com 
  19. Ambarwati                      http://ambarwati0702.wordpress.com
  20. Santi Silvana                   http://santisilvana.wordpress.com
  21. Taty                                                 http://tatyuhamka2007.wordpress.com
  22. Dini                                  http://diniuhamka0702.wordpress.com
  23. Burdah                            http://burdahdarlina.wordpress.com
  24. Sri                                    http://sriuhamka0702.wordpress.com
  25. Samsudin                        http://samlabsky82.wordpress.com
  26. Irianto                             http://tveinews.wordpress.com

Blogger Uhamka 2007 Angkatan I

Kelas  A

  1. Bita Dwi Rahmani  http://dwibit.wordpress.com  email; dwibit@yahoo.com  HP: 0817 899 389
  2. Atikah http://hakita.wordpress.com  email; hakita_june@yahoo.com  HP: 0815 9041821
  3. Muis http://muis70.wordpress.com  email; muis.abd_lia@yahoo.com  HP: 0818147797
  4. M.Novi http://Ivon2007.wordpress.com  email; Ivon_lunk@yahoo.com  HP: 08158872023
  5. Sri Sularsih (Cici) http://chichi2007.wordpress.com  email: srischa@yahoo.com  HP: 0811935392
  6. Santi Silvana (Santi) http://www.santisilvana.wordpress.com email: santisilvana01@yahoo.com  hp:021-706110090
  7. Yulianti http://yulianti207.wordpress.com  e-mail: yulianti207@yahoo.com  HP: 08161404794.
  8. Agustina Tyassanti http://agete.wordpress.com  e-mail: tyassanti@yahoo.com  HP: 08129329218
  9. Nelmi Nasution http://nelmieneste.wordpress.com  e-mail: nenajogi@yahoo.com  HP: 08128258276
  10. Palsapah Aeni http://falsa.wordpress.com  e-mail: ennimahagoni_2007@yahoo.com  HP: 081315282877
  11. Sono http://sonosini2007.wordpress.com e-mail: sonouhamka_pasca@yahoo.com  HP: 081315573101
  12. Subandi: http://bebenlia.wordpress.com e-mail: subandi_umb@yahoo.com  HP: 08128825403 
  13. Farida Hanum http://faridamedan2007.wordpress.com  e-mail: farida_fauzi@yahoo.com  HP: 08888496948
  14. Eka Mirah Sari http://emirahsari.wordpress.com  e-mail: emirahsari@yahoo.com  HP: 021-70074057
  15. Idwan Deshira http://idwandeshira2007.wordpress.com  e-mail: yasminidwan@yahoo.com  Cell: 081680 4241
  16. Muhammad Yusuf  http://mryusuf.wordpress.com  yusufsma700@yahoo.co.id

16.

Kelas B

  1. Sunardi  http://www.sunardiuhamka07.wordpress.com  email: sunardismp11@yahoo.co.id  HP 081310359733;
  2. Destiani Rahmawati  http://www.tazwb2000.wordpress.com  email; tazwb2000@yahoo.com  HP 0815 – 10020208
  3. Iis Arismaya http://iztoe.wordpress.com  email: iztoe@yahoo.co.id  Hp 081510100792
  4. Caswani       http://jcnevata.wordpress.com email: jack_nevata@yahoo.co.id  HP 081310618578
  5. Ahmad Nasikin http://ans67.wordpress.com email: ans_ykb@yahoo.co.id  Hp. 081317776088
  6. Asmareni http://renie1964.wordpress.com  email: renie_bekasi@yahoo.co.id  Hp.081388050846
  7. Hilda Rosida  http://dhaa.wordpress.com  email: riels_cela@yahoo.co.id  Hp. 021-68835683
  8. Wahyu Hidayat http://wahyuhidayat78.wordpress.com  email: alifbata_78@yahoo.co.id  Hp.081381652291
  9. Desmal Dardjis http://desmaldardjis.wordpress.com  email: desmaldardjis44@yahoo.co.id  HP 081586686625; 021-5494663
  10. Utami Dewi K. http://tamiku.wordpress.com  e-mail: tamidewi@yahoo.co.id  HP: 081317947857
  11. Alaidin http://alaidinb.wordpress.com  email: alaidin0858@yahoo.co.id  HP: 0856108774
  12. Wirhayati http://wirhayati.wordspress.com  email: rizka_viar@yahoo.com  HP: 081584242777
  13. Samsularifin                http://samarkusyo.wordpress.com  email: sammawat@yahoo.co.id  HP: 08128727119
  14. Suryaningrat; http://suryaningrat.wordpress.com  email: SSningrat@yahoo.com  HP: 081310737305
  15. Iis Sumiarsih; http://aisyareza.wordpress.com  email: angela05082001@yahoo.com  HP: 0813-8280-5099
  16. Diah Ilmi A; http://triyonotulus.wordpress.com  email: diahilmi@yahoo.co.id  HP 08158954337
  17. Syahrial Nahri http://www.izaku.wordpress.com  email: riyal_ok@yahoo.com  HP. 081385967733
  18. Sjafty Maili http://sjafty.wordpress.com  email: sjafty@yahoo.com  HP: 085210693211
  19. Aisal Bayak: http://salbay.wordpress.com  Email: aisalbayak@yahoo.com   HP 081318378896
  20. Khairun Nisa: http://knisa.wordpress.com

 

Alamat Blog Mahasiswa Uhamka 2009 Angkatan V

1)        Noor Endah C                 http://coolenglish09.wordpress.com misstias_2001@yahoo.co.uk

2)        Afrizal                                  http://afrizalxxx.wordpress.com frit27@yahoo.com

3)        Aulia Yoshida                  http://cochobar.wordpress.com light@rocketmail.com

4)        Widia Ratnasari            http://widiaratnasari.wordpress.com fairly_widia@yahoo.com

5)        Eva Nurmayasari           http://evanurmayasari.wordpress.com eva_nurmayasari@yahoo.com

6)        Bobby Yuskar                  http://salmasalam.wordpress.com bobby.yuskar@yahoo.com

7)        Andri Jaya                                       http://thinkthank.wordpress.com dreenglish_2010@yahoo.com

8)        Nanang AS                                                http://nanang’sblog.wordpress.com nanangas@yahoo.com

9)        Abdul Majid                    http://abdulmajid1965.wordpress.com abdmajid165@gmail.com

10)     Nuris Kainama               http://nurliskainama.wordpress.com nirliskainama@yahoo.com

11)     Aisyah                                 http://aisyah58.wordpress.com aisyah58@yahoo.com

12)     Muhamad Sobri            http://obie6771.wordpress.com ustad.obie@yahoo.com

13)     Ambarsari                                                 http://ambarsariy.wordpress.com ambar_brief@yahoo.com

14)     Muhammad Faisal L   http://faisal951.wordpress.com, http://faisalsalehspd.wordpress.com aku951@yahoo.com

15)     Dessy Wahyuni             http://onn4.wordpress.com mizzstrawberry_cream@yahoo.com

16)     Susilawati                         http://susilawati99.wordpress.com susilawatibean@yahoo.com

17)     Nurul Azizah                    http://nurulazizahfilla.wordpress.com nikicasie@yahoo.com

18)     Endang Sukarsih           http://ensukarsih.wordpress.com endangs9jhs@gmail.com

19)     Sunarsih                             http://sunarsih39.wordpress.com sunarsih_saman39@yahoo.com

20)     Didin Rosyidin               http://dirosya040583.wordpress.com dirosya@yahoo.co.id

21)     Zalzulifa                              http://zalpublisher.wordpress.com zalzulifa@yahoo.com

22)     Sodikin                               http://sadikeane.wordpress.com sodik_kerens@yahoo.com

23)     Setiawati                           http://setiawati3.wordpress.com setiawati_sma3@yahoo.co.id

24)     Peni Astuti                                               http://peniastuti.wordpress.com peniastuti@yahoo.co.id

25)     Diah Retno A                  http://diahretnoanggraini.wordpress.com diahr.anggraini@yahoo.com

26)     Emi Mandagi                   http://k4temi’sblog.wordpress.com emi_katemi_mandagi@yahoo.com

27)     Shelma Shakira             http://lemontrees.wordpress.com sheshakti177@yahoo.com

28) Rohmah Emi Setianingsih              http://rohmahemi.wordpress.com

ICT IN THE LEARNING OF EFL

ICT IN THE LEARNING OF
ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Oleh
Hartoyo, M.A., Ph.D.

1. Prologue
Education is one of the fundamental and vital aspects of life as it has a very important role that influences other aspects of life. Consequently, the educational management requires a serious attention and priority from all educational stakeholders, not only government’s responsibility. The matter was emphasized by the President of the Republic of Indonesia in his speech on the opening of National Conference on Educational Revitalization on 6-9 August 2006. In step with The President, the Vice President on the same occasion also emphasized that it is not only important in preparing a reliable, professional and competitive human resource; education also has a positive contribution to the economic condition of a nation. It means, if the education in a nation gains a promising progress, so does the economy. Therefore, there is no choice except to improve the educational management with an orientation to the increasing of educational quality. One of the efforts to improve the educational management is trough the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT).
The use of ICT in education, including the learning of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), is a positive respons to the rapid development of the Information and Communication Technology in the third millennium. Therefore, the use of ICT in supporting the learning of EFL is a must, not only to improve the effectiveness and quality of the learning of EFL, but more importantly to enhance the mastery of ICT for teacher and student as a life skill in the era of rapidly changing and progressing technology.
In EFL learning context, the utilization and application of ICT based media, including multimedia, can improve learning effectiveness and efficiency, which is expected to provide more satisfactory learning services to the public by properly addressing the need of each students and providing a better service to meet the expected goal and standard. There used to be an idea that the use of ICT in language learning in not too necessary, but presently, the use of ICT is unavoidable. It concerns with the increasing purpose and function of language as a means of communication in technology era.
This paper will address some matters related to the utilization of ICT in the learning of EFL along with its’ advantages and disadvantages.

2. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the technology used to handle information and aid communication. The phrase was coined by Stevenson in his 1997 report to the UK government and promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the UK in 2000 (dictionary.babylon.com).
ICT refers to hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information in the formats of voice, data, text and images”. The devinition is expanded even further in the IICD booklet which states that “clearly, ICT encompasses a wide range of elements that include hardware and software, content generation, knowledge management as well as institutional and management processes” (WorldBank, 2002, IICD, 2006 as cited in Thomas, 2009).
Information and communications technologies (ICT) in education refers to the computing and communications facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education (Kent. 2004).
ICT is sometimes refered to as Information technology (IT), which as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is “the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware.” IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely (wikipedia.org). Information technology (IT) comprises the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to employ information and communications technologies appropriately, securely and fruitfully in learning, employment and everyday life (Kent. 2004).
Hence, information and communication technology (ICT) may be defined as technology, including knowledge, skills and understanding, as well as computing and communications facilities and features functioning to support the process of conveying information and communication.
There are some kinds of technologies classified into information and communication technology as follows.

1) Interactive multimedia
It is a technology which helps to accommodate two or more medias as text, graphic, audio, moving video, static video or animation to become a computer based application. Multimedia is commonly used in website. It comprises a computer with microprocessor, high resolution color monitor, big capacity hard disc, CD-ROM disc drive (flash disc) and stereo speaker (London at al. 1995: 158-161).
2) Television
Television revers to an electronic device for receiving and reproducing the images and sounds of a combined audio and video signal (Encarta)
3) Computer
It is an electronic data processor: an electronic device that accepts, processes, stores, and outputs data at high speeds according to programmed instructions (Encarta). It consist of CPU, monitor and some other apparatus such as floppy disc, USB flash disc et cetera.

4) Sound system
At present, almost all computers are equipped with sound system in its sales package, including speaker and soundcard. Currently, computer speaker has “subwoofer” or additional speaker designed for bass sound. An advanced computer has built in soundcard on its motherboard (on board).
5) Musical instrument digital interface (midi)
The use of MIDI interface enables the user to access the synthesizer in computer. In doing so, we need a software (a compatible MIDI music recording with editing program) and hardware (soundcard MIDI and MIDI cable to connect the synthesizer).
6) Social interface
This media provides facility or example of interaction between human and computer. People will have more interaction with computer in a more intuitive way and with less effort-trough writing, voice, touch, eye movements, and other gestures. This technology serves as the milestone of the recent development of interactive multimedia, audio-graphic computer teleconference, and interactive television via satellite (National Broadband of Employment, Education and Training, 1993:5). Similarly with telematics or telemedia which utilize a series of technology flourished in late 1980s. At first, telematics connects audio network (audio conference, hands-free phone), document network (fax), and visual or graphic (computer with modem and phone line). Present day telematics includes television, interactive television and video conference (National Broadband of Employment, Education and Training, 1993:41).
7) Internet and Website
Internet refers to a computer-based global information system, consisting of many interconnected computer networks. Each networks may have tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computer linked together, enabling them to share and process information in just a click of a mouse. Whereas website is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assets which are addressed with a common domain name or IP address in an Internet Protocol-based network. Nowadays, regardless of peoples’ interest, internet and website is inseparable as the use of website will require an internet connection and internet connection will mean nothing without a interesting website to browse.

Along with the development of technology, ICT supported by computer system and network enables people to communicate face to face and hear the voice directly, although the people involved in the communication process are not the same place or room. Understanding its vital role in ICT, people generally identified, although not wholly correct, ICT with computer. This is understandable as computer is indeed the main part in supporting ICT operation.

3. The Use of ICT in the learning of EFL
ICT generally defined as technology functioning to support the process of conveying information and communication. In global era, the processes of conveying information doesn’t have to be carried out by direct interaction between the communicator and the communicant. With the development of ICT, the communicator and communicant can communicate and interact trough telephone, internet, e-mail, satellite, television, video conference, and the like. The same case applies also in the learning of EFL; in the learning of EFL, there is a communication process between teacher and student. However, the process of learning doesn’t have to be done only by subjecting teacher and students in the same room or a certain place directly. If the teacher or students can not come to the class, the learning process can still be done by means of ICT. For example, a teacher can use ICT trough video conference, which enables him or her to teach or monitor students in their learning process, by seeing and communicating directly although he is not present in the same place as his students. Teacher can also use internet as a means to give lessons, assignments, or other information to students, so students who are absent can get an access to the lesson or information from the teacher via internet.
Form the explained example, it can be inferred that in the context of language learning, ICT serves as the ‘media’ bridging and enabling the learning process, or even direct communication between students and teacher although they are not in the same room or place.
In certain context, ICT (computer and other supporting equipments) can also serve as ‘teacher’ or ‘tutor’. By utilizing specific software such as multimedia program or using countless sourcess in education-based website, language learning program (such as ‘tutorial’) can be created to enable students to learn the lessons with guidance, instruction, information or further explanation for specific terms merged on the program. In language learning, especially in the learning of EFL, most people think that teaching grammar is a waste of time, and even a boring activity. The use of ICT – computer as a mean in supporting grammar teaching, provides comforts both for students and teacher. After designing the program, it is not necessary for teacher to explain and answer the questions related to certain grammatical problems all the time as students can learn grammar trough language learning program from computer according to their own interest, need and time availability, without always come face to face with the teacher; without being afraid or embarrassed when making mistake in answering questions and they can re-learn lessons or re-do practices they haven’t understood or mastered.
Another advantage of ICT-computer is that it can be an inseparable ‘reference book’. Computer can store unlimited lessons or reference, which can be accessed anytime promptly and accurately. Besides, computer-based reference book connected to internet can be accessed by a lot of people in the same time, so it is more efficient comparing to other common books.
If combined with other media, such as video or education-based website, ICT-computer can serve as a peer for students in playing educational games, or as source of learning material, which can give illustration for verbally difficult to explain concepts as well as other interactive and attractive illustration (Kenning et al, 1984). Parallel to previous statement, Ahmad et al (1985) also states that:

“It (computer) may communicate with student visually by displaying text, graphics (diagrams, graphs, line drawings) or video images on a screen; it may also present sound, in the form of speech, music, or other audio output…”

The forms of ICT application in language learning will be addressed in following part.

4. ICT application in the learning of EFL
Below are examples of ICT application which are commonly applied in supporting learning, including the learning of English as a Foreign Language (EFL).

1) Computer-Assisted Language Learning Program
Rapid development of ICT has influenced computer application in supporting the learning of EFL, which are commonly referred as Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Computer as medium, used to help learners in learning process, as in language learning. However, “it (computer) is powerless and totally depends on the users” (Hartoyo, 2006:11).
Apart from computer as medium, if it is used correctly and effectively, computer can provide some advantages for students in EFL learning process. One of the advantages is that computer can be more interactive compare to other medium such as tape recorder, film projector, or other traditional media in learning such as chalk and blackboard. Besides, EFL learning program developed with ICT-computer is more flexible and efficient, as students can start learning the lesson from any part or topic they like, without having to start from the beginning of it; if they have understood, and don’t think they should start from the beginning, they can jump to the next lesson, which they believe important. They can even directly do the exercises, when they have understood the lesson. Another advantage is students can learn it quite according to their time and responsibilities. Thus, the learning of English as a Foreign language using CALL will be more confinient, effective and efficient.

2) Information Hubs
Internet as one of ICT’s applications can function as information hub which supports language learning. Trough internet, teacher can upload as well as download syllabus, lessons, reading materials, assignments, announcements, and multimedia learning sources. It can also be a showroom for interactive learning programs. In so doing, students or even everyone can get information related to language learning trough internet, which is accessible from anywhere and anytime.

3) Publication Forum
ICT can be used as publication forum for teachers and students. Trough website, students can publish their essays, reports, articles, and ideas so their teacher or other people can read, comment or appreciate, or contact the student (the one who publish it) for further interest. Teacher can also do the same thing to students or colleagues, to share their ideas, experiences, and give comments in publication forum trough listservs web publication.

4) Medium to converse or correspond
As explained in previous section, ICT can function as medium to converse or correspond. By video conference, teacher and students can converse although they are not in the same place. Teacher and students who are in the same place can invite other party to join, an expert in certain field for example, and discuss trough video conference. With video conference via internet, teacher and students do not have to meet certain expert in other area or country to get information or assistance concerning their education or other interests, so it is more efficient in time, effort, or cost.
Video conference also enables someone to give presentation or comments to the presentation. For example, when students are observing or conducting a research far from school and intend to give temporary report about it, they can do it via video conference.

5) Intercultural Communications
It is common for teenage-students to have intercultural communication among friends in a school, area, country, or even between countries. Intercultural communication indirectly influences the language in communication. Trough electronic mail (E-mail), MOO chat group, MIRC, and the recent phenomena; facebook, people can easily have an intercultural chat or communication.
Moreover, they can exchange digital information or files, as well as visual contact.

6) Research Support
Language learning, including EFL learning, require a continuous improvement both in material and method. Such improvement will need a scientific based proof, which can be provided by a research.
Conducting a research needs a sufficient support of theoretical, empirical or pragmatic information and data source. Internet can be a supporting source of a research by displaying bibliography of a certain field, provide links of relevant websites, or theories and empiric research results of language learning and a medium to collect data via online survey or questionnaire.

7) Online education
The advancement of ICT especially internet and website have made it easier for everyone to pursue their interests and needs including learning a foreign language. Recently, it is easier for students to access websites dedicated to assist them, or everyone, in learning english. A lot of materials have been arranged and displayed in an interactive way as to make the learning environment enjoyable and anouraging for them.
Some institutions, colleges and universities, even offer online courses for those willing to pursue a higher level of education with certain quality but has limitation in time, distance or money. Studies, such as conducted by Ebiefung (2000) shows that online education via internet can profide students with (1) Motivating Factor: The Internet can act as a motivating tool for many students, (2) Fast Communication: The Internet promotes fast communication across geographical barriers. (3) Access to Information: The Net allows easy access to information all over the world. It complements the library. (4) Interactive Activities: There are many interactive activities on the Internet for students of all ages. (5) Cooperative Learning: The Internet facilitates cooperative learning, encourages dialogue, and creates a more engaging classroom. (6) Research Materials: Apart from communication, research is what takes many people to the Internet. There are many more resources on the Internet than the school library can provide. (7) Varied Writing Skills: If students are required to publish their work on the Internet, they have to develop hypertext skills. These skills help students gain experience in non-sequential writings. and (8) The Work Environment: Many businesses have Web sites and some require computer skills for employment.

5. Possibilities of utilizing ICT in the learning of EFL
One of the main problems of language learning is issue related to language learning method. Seen from the history of language learning development, there are a lot of efforts to provide a better learning method. This effort stems from criticism upon the inadequacy found in the previous method. For instance, grammar translation method which emphasize on reading, grammar and vocabulary is considered ineffective in providing students with communication skill. Based on this critic, other method such as Direct Method, which emphasizes on the use of target language in communication, emerged. Direct method was also criticized, which stimulates the exploration of other “promising” methods, from Audio-Lingual Method, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Community Language, Communicative Approach to Total Physical Response. After its emergence, Total Physical Response was also criticized. Along with the development of ICT, there has been an idea of developing Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)-Multimedia.
Since the last two decades, the language learning methods using ICT-computer (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) gives positive opportunity in helping students and teachers in language learning. Scientific reports (Nichols, 1995; Cumming, Sussex and Cropp, 1994; Dewey, Jones, and Fox, 1995; Ruhlman, 1995, Renie and Chanier, 1995; Thiery, 1996) show a positive impact from CALL, in terms of the appropriateness, effectiveness, interaction, and flexibility side.

6. The Utilization of CALL to enhance the learning of English grammar
The current issue regarding grammar instruction is how grammar instruction can be effectively delivered. A number of efforts have been made to seek a better and more effective way of teaching grammar. As far as the effectiveness of instruction is concerned, it has been assumed that computers may possibly be utilized to facilitate the delivery of the teaching and learning of explicit grammar. This assumption however, requires further empirical evidence. The following is a discussion related to some considerations underlying the utilization of a self-access, computer-assisted language learning programs and their relationship to explicit language instruction, specifically instruction in grammar.
The impact of information and communication technology (ICT) development on language education has been widely countenanced. Ballenden (1984) points out that computer technology will increasingly penetrate all areas of life, including education. Maddison (1983) maintains that the technology of education and the technology of communication are two sides of the same coin. The development of information technology that has followed the development of computer technology has stimulated people especially those who work in the field of education, such as teachers, curriculum planners and media designers, to endeavour to carry out experiments and studies on the possibilities of utilizing computers for educational purposes. This endeavour has increased with the development of so-called hypertext [hypermedia] computer interfaces. Interest in the computer as a means of enhancing the teaching and learning process, known as CAI/CBI or CALL, is gradually developing. The beneficial advantages, such as its interactive capability (Brandl, 1991; Hartoyo, 1993:25, 1994; Petermandle, 1990) and flexibility (Davis,1993) have been discussed. The unique properties of the computer as a medium for education are its ability to interact with the student (Nelson,1980) and its flexibility that enables students to move in whatever direction interests them and navigate through both texts and graphical information (Smith,1988:33-40), as well as video clips with the choice of live sound or narration on the topic they choose (Ahmad,1985:2-3). Moreover, the computer can be utilized to enhance language learning, and can also be used to generate examples to illustrate certain operations, or to stimulate conversation (Kenning, 1984). This integrated combination of features can help students with clear explanations and descriptions, as well as illustrations.
Despite these apparent advantages, the application of computer-assisted language learning does not seem to exert a common influence on learner performance. On the one hand, various studies examining the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning programs have revealed that there are significant differences in favour of computers between the language learning achievement attained by students from computer-assisted language learning groups and non-computer ones (e.g., Gila, 1992; Atkinson, 1992; Borras, 1993; Sanne, 1993; Underwood, 1993; Welch and Hodges, 1990; Hartoyo, 1993). The same results can be seen in recent studies on the effectiveness of computer-mediated language instruction in stimulating learners’ language outcomes in terms of conversational skills. Studies such as those by Hawkins, Sheingold, Gearhart, and Berger (1982); Piper (1986); Cumming, Sussex, and Cropp (1994a, 1994b); Young (1986); Windeatt (1986); Doughty (1987); Dunkel (1991); Abraham and Liu (1991); Meskill (1993); Crook (1994); Wegerif and Mercer (1985); Johnson, (1991); Mohan (1992); Walker (1994); Nicholls (1995); Davey, Jones, and Fox (1995); Ruhlman (1995); Schroeder and Grabowski (1995); Renie and Chanier (1995); and Thierry (1996) show that there is indeed an advantage in using computers in instruction.
Hartoyo’s (1998) study investigating the effectiveness of CALL to improve students’ mastery of English grammar reveals that the scores of the students improved in all aspects of grammar highlighted in the CALL program. The scores they achieved in the tests after undergoing the treatment are considerably higher compared to the scores they gained prior to having the treatment. The improvement not only appears in the test administered immediately after the treatment, but also in the following tests.
Based on the review of theories and empirical studies, and also the results of my study, it can be argued that the students did benefit from a self-access CALL program.

7. Key to a successful utilization of ICT in the learning of EFL
Learning of EFL via information and communiation technology does not guarantee to achieving a curriculum objectives. Hulme and E.Locosto (2004) emphasized that every successful classroom technology achieved success precisely because it addressed a need of the educational culture, and not because it possessed some ephemeral quality of uniqueness or novelty. In another word, an appropriate technology will ensure a good learning environment and a better learning process.
Another issue worth highlighting is how ICT is actually used in EFL classroom. There are some factors which are essential for the successful use of the ICT for language teaching and learning, especially in EFL as explained by Ebiefung (2000) below:
1. Knowledge and usage of ICT
2. Training on a continual basis
3. Availability of equipment and technical assisstance
4. Supportive administration
5. Collaboration with other teachers
6. Advanced planning
7. Efficient use of technology
8. Using ICT as a tool
9. Responsible use of ICT
10. Proper provision of ICT
11. Adoption of an acceptable use policy
12. Appropriate and exciting projects
13. Genuine interest in the process
14. Good reward system
15. Evaluation method

8. Implication and recommendations
1) It has always been argued that teaching English, particularly grammar, is time consuming. The time allocated for classroom contact is limited and therefore English teachers often ask the students to study grammar by themselves and the teachers concentrate on the other skills, such as speaking, listening, and reading. To cope with this dilemma, a self-access CALL program may be an appropriate and promising solution. This is due to a number of advantages offered by this medium which may not be found in any other instructional media. Most importantly, a self-access CALL program can be utilized to support individual learning environments which enables students to learn materials based on their own personality, style, strategy, interest, and capability. Having such a self-access learning program, students can improve their knowledge of grammar along with their communicative skills, without having to create more blocks of time within a busy syllabus. Due to the development of information technology, it is now possible to provide a self-access CALL program on the Internet so that the access is not limited by time or location.
2) Apart from the benefit of a self-access CALL program, a number of issues should be considered in developing such an instructional program. This include considering the cost of purchasing equipment, choosing suitable software, selecting materials, determining objectives, choosing the type of intended program, and designing the layout of the screens. More importantly, CALL designers or developers should understand clearly the principles of creating the program such as ‘interactivity’, ‘flexibility’, ‘accessibility’ and ‘appropriateness’.
3) It has been argued in previous section that there is no single best method appropriate for all students, levels, lessons, contexts or situations. This also applies to the utilization of a CALL program to enhance the learning of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Despite the fact that, overall, the self-access CALL program may be said to have been beneficial and effective, the degree of its effectiveness in delivering the teaching of the diverse target language is not the same.
4) Overall the study has shown that explicit grammar teaching via a self-access CALL programs can improve conscious knowledge of the grammar features selected and to an improvement in the L2 production of the subjects as measured by their writing skills. While it may be claimed by some that such an improvement in writing as a result of explicit instruction was merely the result of monitoring of language performance by the students.

9. Epilogue
Best efforts will fail without high commitment, coordination, communication, and synergy between all stakeholders. Consequently, it requires a good cooperation and synergy in utilizing ICT to enhance and support language learning. Besides, it needs proper and thorough planning before actually developing language learning using ICT, known as CALL, as states by Davies and Ellison (1992) “those who do not plan, plan to fail”.
Besides planning, there are, at least, three main components required, namely (1) the hardware, (2) the software, and (3) the brainware (human resource and system). Indonesian way of thinking such as “able to buy, unable to maintain” or “easier to buy than to maintain” should be changed into “able to buy and maintain” and “easy to buy and maintain”. Hence, all stakeholders responsible for the utilization of ICT need to highlight the maintenance as well as the change of mindset of the relevant human resources.

10. Daftar Pustaka

Ahmad, K., G. Corbett, M. Rogers, and R. Sussex. (1985). Computers, Language Learning and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Alexander, L.G. (1990). Why Teach Grammar? Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics, 377-382.
Asher, J.J.(1972). Children learning another language: A developmental hypothesis. Child Development, 48, 1040-1048.
Atkinson, T. (1992). Hands Off: It’s My Go! IT in the Languages Classroom for Information and Language Teaching and Research. London.
Brandl, K.(1991). Strategic Response to Errors in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. In Dorothy and Klaus (1992). Beyond Form-Based Drill and Practice: Meaning-Enhancing CALL on the Macintosh. Foreign Language Annals, 25(3):225-267.
Brumfit, J.C. (1885). Language and Literature Teaching: From practice to principle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cummings, G., Sussex, R., and Cropp, S. (1994a). The teacher-learner-computer Triangle in CALL Frameworks for interaction and advice. Computer Assisted Language Learning. 7(2)
Davey, D., Kristen G.J., and Fox, J. (1995). Multimedia in Language Learning: Some Course Design Issues. Computer Assisted Language Learning. 8(1)
Davies, B. dan Ellison, L. (1992). School Development Planning. Essex: Longman Group U.K. Ltd.
Ebiefung, Aniekan. 2000. Teaching Using the Internet. University of Tenneessee at Chattanooga. Retreived on July 02 2009, from: cecasun.utc.edu
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Effendy, Onong Uchjana. 2003. Ilmu, Teori, dan Filsafat Komunikasi, Bandung: PT. Citra Aditya Bakti
_______. 1986. Dinamika Komunikasi. Bandung: CV. Remadja Karya
Gutmann. 1987. Dalam Nyberg, D.A. 1990. Educational Leadership in an Age of Reform. Longman: Yew York.
Hanson. E. M. 1996., Educational Administration and Organisational Behavior. Allyn and Bacon: America Serikat
Hartoyo. (1993) Creating Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) Using Hypertext System: A CAL Tutorial Program for the Learners of English. Thesis Master of Arts (Unpublished). Sheffield, United Kingdom: Sheffield University.
_______. (2006). Individual Differences in Computer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Semarang: Unnes Press.
_______, (2006). Supervisi Pendidikan Mewujudkan Sekolah Efektif dalam Kerangka Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah. Semarang: Pelita Insani
_______, (2008). The Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) In Language Learning. National Seminar on “ICT and Language Teaching” English Department, Semarang State University. Semarang
Heinich, Robert et.al. 1996. Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. London: Prentice Hall.
Hulme, Michael and E. Locasto, Michael. 2004. Using the Web to Enhance and Transform Education. The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Retreived on July 02 2009, from: http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds10-1/webedu.html
ICT. 2009.retreived on July 02 2009, from: Dictionary.babylon.com/education#!!GE5F8HNF7T
Jones, G. (1986). Computer simulations in language teaching – the Kingdom Experiment. System, 14(2), 179-186.
Kenning, M.J. and M.M. Kenning. (1984). An Introduction to Computer Assisted language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kent council. 2004. What is ICT?. Retreived on Juli 03 2009, from: www. Kent.gov.uk
Manning-Thomas, Nadia. 2009. Changing the Emperor: ICT-enabled collaboration transforming agricultural science, research and technology into an effective participatory and innovations system approach. Retreived on July 02 2009, from web2fordef.net
Microsoft® Encarta® 2007. © 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Nicholls, L. (1995). Computers as stimulus for talk: the nature of talk generated by pairs of students using storyboard. ON-CALL, 9(2), 19-29.
Ruhlmann, F. (1995). Towards replacement of the teaching process: the emulation of the teaching process with CAL and its implication for the design of a multimedia CAL tutorial. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 8(1), 45-61
Thierry, Chanier. (1996). Learning a second language for specific purposes within a hypermedia framework. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 9(1), 3-43.
Thorndike, R.M. (1997). 6th. Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education.
Underwood, John H. (1984). Linguistic, computer and the language teacher. New York: Newbury House
Wikipedia english. 2004. Information Technology. Retreived on July 02 2009, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/informationtechnology&quot